Global Nuclear Power Engineering Development
According to WNA (World Nuclear Association) statistics, in January 2013 in 29 countries of the world there were 435 nuclear reactors in service with a total installed capacity of 374,108 MWe. Globally, these reactors account for about 13,5 % of the world’s electricity production. There are 65 of them being constructed in 13 countries. 167 reactors are planned to be constructed. 317 Global reactors are being debated in total (including the CR), the installed capacity of which will reach almost 366,000 MW.
Nuclear use plays a significant role in the EU – approximately one third of the produced energy here comes from nuclear power plants. In Europe nuclear power plants are being built in Finland, France, Russia and Slovakia. Construction is being prepared in Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech republic, France, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine and United Kingdom.
Most nuclear facilities are run in the USA (104), France (58), Japan (50), Russia (33), South Korea (23), India (20), Canada (19), China and Great Britain (both 16). In EU countries pressurised water reactors (PWR) are largely used (65%), boiling water reactors (BWR) rank second (22%). Heavy water reactors, graphite water reactors, gas cooled reactors, fast reactors and other types.
World Electricity Production Structure
Over the past 15 years the production of electricity in nuclear power plants has increased globally by more than 660 million kWh annually. This is largely due to production in new facilities, reconstruction of existing facilities, increasing the capacity and decreasing the failure rate. New repair methods, facility checks and better organisation of work also led to a decrease in the time necessary for fuel change – in this way the nuclear power plants have shorter outage times due to fuel change. Today’s nuclear power plants globally reach the average use value of 84%. In terms of operation hours translated into annual rated capacity, nuclear power plants show 8,000 hours per year whereas coal-fired power plants only 7,000 and gas even less (for operational and economic reasons). Wind shows only 1,000 to 3,000 hours per year (and this is not in accordance with the facility operators’ or customers’ wish but it depends on the weather!).
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